Crop News January 05, 2018
Indian Groundnuts are Available in Different Varieties
Indian groundnuts are available in different varieties: Bold or Runner, Java or Spanish and Red Natal. The main Groundnut varieties produced in India are Kadiri-2, Kadiri-3, BG-1, BG-2, Kuber , GAUG-1, GAUG-10, PG-1 , T-28, T-64, Chandra, Chitra, Kaushal, Parkash, Amber etc.
They have a rich nutty flavour, sweet taste, crunchy texture and over and above a relatively longer shelf life. Soil conditions in some producing regions are ideally suited for dry, clean and spotless Groundnuts in Shell.
Groundnut is the major oil seed crop in India and it plays a major role in bridging the vegetable oil deficit in the country. Groundnuts in India are available throughout the year due to a two-crop cycle harvested in March and October. Ground Nuts are important protein crops in India grown mostly under rain-fed conditions.
The awareness and concern for quality amongst the Indian groundnut shellers and processors are growing steadily. Multiple sorting and grading are fast becoming a norm. Indian manufacturer have the capability to prepare and supply edible peanuts conforming to highest standards.
Processed Peanuts: Apart from raw edible peanuts, India is also in a position to supply Blanched Peanuts, Roasted Salted Peanuts and Dry Roasted Peanuts and a variety of peanut based products.
Major Growing States
Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra ,Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Uttar Pradesh
- Andhra Pradesh
In Andhra Pradesh groundnut covered an area of 9,23,405 hectares in kharif- 2016 showing an expansion by 35.4% over the kharif-2015 acreage (6,82,000 hectares). The sowing operations began as early as the second fortnight of May and stretched up to first fortnight of August. The bulk of the sowing, however, was from 1st week of June to the 2nd week of July. The harvesting began from 1st week of September to 1st week of November with the bulk being harvested during entire October. The recommended variety ‘Kadiri-6’, a Spanish type, has been found to be the most popular (80%) among the farmers interviewed and another Spanish variety ‘Narayani’, was found to be the second most popular (7%). ‘JL 24’, ‘TMV 2’, ‘TAG 24’, ‘Kadiri 9’, and ‘Kadiri Haritandhra’- are the other Spanish types sown by the farmers.
Compared to kharif-2015 (13,55,000 hectares), the acreage in kharif-2016 expanded by 20.3% (16,30,000 hectares). The time window for sowing was narrow. The bulk of the sowing, was done from last week of June to the 2nd week of July and the bulk of the crop was harvested during October. 'GG-20', a semi-spreading variety (released in 1992) continues to be the most popular variety in the state. Among the Spanish types, a very old variety ‘GG 2’ (released in 1982) and a relatively new large seeded variety ‘TLG-45’ (released in 2007) have been found popular. Most farmers have used their home grown seed whereas a good number have obtained seeds from private companies and oil-mills.
In this state, the acreage of groundnut in kharif-2016 (5,27,417 hectares) expanded by 28.6% compared to that of kharif-2015 (4,10,000 hectares). The bulk of the sowing was done from the 2nd week of June to the 3rd week of June and the bulk of the crop was harvested from 2nd to last week of October. Amongst the farmers interviewed, 70% had used the old Spanish variety ‘TMV-2’ and among the new varieties, ‘GPBD-4’ had gained considerable ground. Most farmers used their home grown seed while a good number obtained seeds from the private companies and oil-mills.
In kahrif-2016, there was an expansion of acreage by 13.1%. The kharif-2016 acreage was 2,10,370 hectares compared to 1,86,000 hectares in kharif-2015. Most of the sowing was done during the first fortnight of July and the crop was harvested from the last week of October to first week of November. 'SB XI', one of the oldest Spanish variety of India (released in 1965) continues to be very popular among the farmers while another relatively new Spanish variety ‘TAG 24’ (released in 1992), has gained considerable ground. Most farmers dispose off their produce shortly after harvest and procure seed for the next season from the local seed traders. Thus seed supply is maintained through an informal (non-official) seed chain.
Compared to 5,16,900 hectares in kharif-2015, the kharif-2016 acreage was 6,16,629 hectares which indicates not only an expansion by 19.3% but the highest ever acreage of kharif groundnut in Rajasthan. Most of groundnut area in the state has ideal soils (sandy, sandy-loam and alluvial) for this crop. In kharif-2016, the major area was sown from June 1st week to July 2nd week and harvested from October 3rd week to November 2nd week. Semi-spreading variety ‘GG-20’ has become quite popular in this state and its seed is marketed under various variant names. Sapnish variety of Rajasthan ‘HNG- 10’ has covered a sizeable area.
- Tamil Nadu
The acreage of kharif groundnut in Tamil Nadu has been stable for the last five years. In Kharif-2016 (2,17,036 hectares) there was a nominal increase (2.7%) in acreage compared to that of kharif-2015 (2,11,400 hectares). The age old Spanish variety ‘TMV-2’ (released in 1940) continues to be the most prevalent and its seed supply is maintained through an informal (non-official) seed chain with several local variant names. As usual for kharif season in this state, the bulk of the planting lasted for about a month from the 3rd week of June to the 3rd week of July and the harvesting was done from October 1st week to November 2nd week.